epsilon-Poly(L-lysine)Hydrochloride; EPL; Poly(L-lysine) Hydrochloride; Lysine Homopolymer Hydrochloride
Poly-L-lysine is a small, natural homopolymer of the essential amino acid L-lysine which is produced by bacterial fermentation. The resulting homopolypeptide contains ~ 15-20 mer chain of L-lysine [Mw ~2.5-3.5 KDa]. Poly-L-lysine is a cationic polymer. In water, ε-Poly-L-lysine contains a positively charged hydrophilic amino group that is adsorbed electrostatically onto the surface of the bacteria, resulting in a stripping of the outer membrane and leading to cytoplasm disruption and apoptosis. Poly-L-lysine has achieved GRAS status in the US. Poly-L-lysine is an off-white crystalline solid that exhibits broad pH and temperature stability. Investigations of the antimicrobial properties of ε-Polylysine report it is effective against yeast, fungi, and both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In cell media applications, ε-Poly-L-lysine acts as a cell growth enhancer, by increasing the number of positively charged sites available for cell binding, thereby affording cells a nonspecific attachment capability that assists in promoting cell adhesion to solid surfaces. Increasingly, Poly-L-lysine is being adapted to applications in medical, pharmaceutical and cell media industries. Wilshire Technologies produces a low-endotoxin EPL, >98%, specific for cell media applications.